There are various ways to get work authorization, either through employer sponsorship, or without employer sponsorship. Below are the most common H1B alternatives that come to my head…Work authorization without employer sponsorshipF1 CPTThis is a great option and very popular among people who didn’t get an H1B. It does not require any type of sponsorship from the employer. Everything is done through the school. All the employee needs to do is enroll in a school program that offers CPT, and request CPT to work. Once CPT is granted by the school, the employee can work for the duration of the degree program (typically 2 years). The requirement is that the work is related to the program of study, so the degree program has to be chosen accordingly to the type of work the employee will be doing.F1 CPT is a great option to get work authorization for ~2 years, during which other options can be sought. During the 2 years the employee works on F1 CPT, the employer can try again for the H1B, or even start the Green Card process.J1 TraineeThis visa doesn’t require the employer’s sponsorship either, but it is a little tricky because it is meant for training and not actual work. But if the employer is flexible enough to make the job offer look more like a training offer, then the employee will be able to work on J1 Trainee visa.Work authorization requiring employer sponsorshipH1B visaH1B is the most common work visa sponsored by employers. Finding an employer willing to sponsor H1B can be challenging due to companies unwilling to take the risk of the H1B lottery. Despite this, there are still many companies willing to sponsor visas, you just need to be persistent in your searchIn particular, you should know that there is one type of employer that will always be willing to sponsor your H1B. These are the so called “H1B consultants”. The reason why they always want to sponsor your H1B is because they make money from it. Once they decide to hire you, they will sponsor your H1B and rent you out to other companies (think Google, Facebook, Cisco, etc). If your hourly rate is $100/hr, they will take $25/hr and you get the $75/hr. So the H1B consultants get a cut from your check, and you get your H1B sponsored. It’s a win-win.Be careful when working with these consultants because many of them are scammers. Serious consultants will never make you pay for H1B fees, as this is illegal. Serious consultants also work with reputable client companies.O1 visaThis is most common for scientists and researchers who have a PhD or a MS with significant number of publications. It is not only reserved for Nobel Prize winners but in order to succeed the applicant definitely needs to prove high recognition in his/her field.Green CardThis is the best option if you want to keep the employee in the long term. But depending on the country of citizenship, it can be easy or hard to obtain. If your employee is on F1, don’t listen to lawyers who discourage you from pursuing a Green Card. It is perfectly feasible to go from F1 to Green Card and I have seen a lot of people succeed at it. You just need a very good lawyer to handle your case.